Session 1: Pediatrics
Pediatrics is a branch of medicine which deals with the development, care and diseases of new born, infants, children and adolescents. The study of Pediatrics is reducing the fleeting rates of the neonate and the kids and furthermore to control the dissemination of difficulties which are paediatric enticing illnesses, which will spreads and mammoth sicknesses free life to draw out the problems of children. The improvement of Pediatrics finished by knowing the unlike Pediatrics hereditary issues critical subjects which profoundly included for Pediatrics fundamental treatment.
Session 2: Gynecology and Obstetrics
Many women see an Obstetrics/Gynecology specialists for their women’s health needs, including maternity and menopause management, however you knew that OB/GYN actually encompasses 2 different medical specialties. An obstetrics focus on the care of a pregnant lady and her unhatched baby. These specialists are trained to handle a range of potential complications or situations that may occur throughout pregnancy and therefore the birthing, biological process process, includes extrauterine pregnancy, foetal distress, Placenta problems and cesarean section.
An obstetrician is also able to guide a mother safely through the complete expertise from conception to delivery to the postpartum period. Other services like Fertility treatment and fetal diagnostic procedures. Gynecology focus on the non-pregnancy aspects of a woman’s reproductive health. Women typically begin seeing a specialist when they become sexually active or at the onset of puberty if required. Regular gynecological exams are vital for a woman’s health. Gynecologists perform commonplace examinations, such as Pap tests and pelvic exams. There could also be a variety of treatments or diagnosing includes like Prolapse, Fibroids, ovarian cysts, endometriosis, Cervical and vaginal polyps, Cancer of the ovaries, uterus, cervix, vagina or Fallopian tubes. Gynecology includes surgical procedures like Hysterectomy, Oophorectomy, Salpingectomy, Tubal ligation, Cone biopsy and Labiaplasty.
Session 3: Pediatric Health Care and Nutrition
The maintenance of a proper well balanced diet consisting of the essential nutrients and the adequate caloric intake necessary to promote growth and sustain the physiological requirements at the various stages of a child's development. Nutritional needs vary considerably with age, level of activity, and environmental conditions, and they are directly related to the rate of growth. In the prenatal period growth totally depends on adequate maternal nutrition. During infancy the need for calories, especially in the form of protein, is greater than at any postnatal period because of the rapid increase in both height and weight. From toddler hood through the preschool and middle childhood years, growth is uneven and occurs in spurts, with a resulting fluctuation in appetite and calorie consumption. In general, the average child expends 55% of energy on metabolic maintenance, 25% on activity, 12% on growth, and 8% on excretion. The accelerated growth phase during adolescence has greater nutritional requirements, although food habits are often influenced by emotional factors, peer pressure, and fad diets. Inadequate nutrition, especially during critical periods of growth, results in retarded development or illness.
Session 4: Paediatric Dentistry
Paediatric dentistry is the branch of dentistry dealing with children from birth through adolescence. The specialty of paediatric dentistry is recognized by the American Dental Association, Royal College of Dentists of Canada, and Royal Australasian College of Dental Surgeons.
Paediatric dentists promote the dental health of children as well as serve as educational resources for parents. It is recommended by the American Academy of paediatric Dentistry (AAPD) and the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) that a dental visit should occur within six months after the presence of the first tooth or by a child's first birthday. The AAPD has said that it is important to establish a comprehensive and accessible ongoing relationship between the dentist and patient – referring to this as the patient's "dental home". This is because early oral examination aids in the detection of the early stages of tooth decay. Early detection is essential to maintain oral health, modify aberrant habits, and treat as needed and as simply as possible. Additionally, parents are given a program of preventative home care (brushing/flossing/fluorides), a caries risk assessment, information on finger, thumb, and pacifier habits, advice on preventing injuries to the mouth and teeth of children, diet counseling , and information on growth and development.
Session 5: Pediatric Nephrology
Nephrology is the scientific study of the kidneys, particularly their functions and diseases, and a nephrologist is a physician who specializes in the kidneys. The kidneys remove waste from the body (via urine), filter toxins from the blood and help regulate the concentration of certain elements in the blood. Children whose kidneys have become seriously impaired require immediate and specialized medical care. Pediatric Nephrology Services works closely with community agencies to ensure that patients receive the developmental, nutritional, educational and other resources they need. Available treatments include:
· Drug therapy
· Management of kidney transplant patients
· Nutritional therapy
· Psychosocial support
In addition to four years of residency training in obstetrics and gynecology the maternal-fetal medicine subspecialist has received two to three years of education in the diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the mother and fetus. The maternal-fetal medicine specialist typically works in consultation with the obstetrician.
Session 6: Paediatric Neurology
paediatric Neurology is deals with the diagnose the problem as well as treating all of them types of diseases which are concerned in central and peripheral nervous systems along with its subdivisions, the main aim of involuntary nervous system as well as somatic nervous systems, includes the covering, tissues like muscles blood vessels and every one effectors and muscles.
Researchers are engaged during a kind of laboratory and clinical analysis programs to increase their understanding of the developing nervous system and pathologic processes that underlie neurologic disorders in children. The foremost common neurological disorder is paediatric brain disease. Approximately 70% of children that suffer from Epilepsy throughout their childhood eventually outgrow it. Magnetic resonance spectrometry (MRS) could be a diagnostic tool used for genetic metabolic disorders. Neuromuscular and genetic metabolic diseases are the foremost common genetic connected disorders in children.
Session 7: Pediatric Oncology
Pediatric Oncology is a healthy development in drug related to diagnosis and treating children, as a rule up to the age of eighteen, with malignancy. It’s thought to be one among the foremost challenging of specialties as a result of, despite favourable treatment of the many children, there’s a high death rate still connected with different types of malignancies.
It will be horrifying to listen to that a child has cancer or a blood disease. It’s acknowledged that metastatic tumour is that the commonest additional so solid growth of infancy. It’s an embryonic malignancy of the sympathetic system nervous arising from neuroblasts. Researchers are searching for genetic supply of childhood cancer.
The common blood maladies in children are leukaemia and lymphatic cancer. Leukaemia may be a disease of the white blood cells. The foremost common form of paediatric cancer is acute white blood cell cancer. Alternative types of leukaemia that occur less of times in children are acute myeloid leukaemia, and chronic myeloid leukaemia. Lymphomas are the third commonest cancer in children. Based on the characteristics and microscopic look of the neoplastic cell, the paediatric cancers are divided into Hodgkin malignant neoplastic disease and Non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
Session 8: Pediatric Ophthalmology
The Pediatric Ophthalmology Department at Sankara Nethralaya is a highly specialized, niche and advanced eye care facility offering expert diagnosis and treatment for the entire gamut of ophthalmic problems in children belonging to the age groups from ‘just born’ to ‘teens’ as well as for adults with strabismus. The department is a pioneer in treating children and was started as an exclusive facility at a time when eye care was largely dispensed to this delicate age group in a general eye care ward, alongside treatment offered to adults. It was a deep understanding that ophthalmic issues in children need different diagnostic/ treatment modalities and protocols and eye care experts specifically trained in treating this segment and a deep concern in addressing the disturbingly high prevalence of childhood vision impairments in the country that led to the inception of this department.
Session 9: Pediatric Critical Care
If your child has an illness or injury that results in your child being in an unstable critical condition, a hospital-based pediatric critical care specialist (pediatric intensives) can be called on to provide the special care that your child needs. Some conditions that may cause your child to be unstable and critical include the following: Severe, Deep diabetic ketoacidosis
An overwhelming infection, such as severe pneumonia, Serious injuries from accidents (such as cars, bicycles, scooters, skateboards, and rollerblades), A near drowning. All children become ill or injured at one time or another. Most of these problems can be cared for by your pediatrician.Children who are critically ill require careful monitoring in a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). Pediatric critical care specialists coordinate the care of these children which is provided by a team of doctors, nurses, and other health care specialists. They use the special medicines or treatments that can only be offered in the PICU.
Session 10: Pediatric Gastroenterology
Pediatric gastroenterology is that the part of medicine that manages the sicknesses and ailments of the alimentary tract in infants and children. It’s involved with treating the GI tract, liver and exocrine gland of kids from infancy till age eighteen. The principal diseases it’s involved with are acute diarrhea, persistent vomit, gastritis, and issues with the development of the gastric tract.These conditions would possibly hold on throughout birth or surface in later stage because the juvenile creates. Traditional precedents incorporate nourishment hypersensitivities, colitis, anorexia and bulimia, celiac illness, Cohn’s disorder, loose bowels, gluten affectability, ceaseless stoppage, crabby gut disorder, inability to flourish, and alternative connected abdomen connected and disposal problems.
Session 11: Pediatric Pulmonology
The respiratory system is liable to a number of diseases, and therefore the lungs are vulnerable to a wide range of disorders caused by pollutants in the air. The foremost common issues of the respiratory system are, Asthma, bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary sickness, cystic fibrosis, lung cancer, pneumonia and pulmonary cardiovascular disease.Several respiratory conditions can have an effect on a new-born baby simply commencing to breathe for the primary time. Premature babies are at increased risk for conditions such as:
Respiratory distress syndrome of the new-born, Persistent pulmonic high blood pressure of the new-born, Apnea of prematureness, Broncho pulmonary dysplasia, meconium aspiration and Transient tachypnea of the new-born.Babies born untimely might not have enough chemical agent within the lungs. Chemical agent helps to stay the baby’s alveoli open; without surfactant, the lungs collapse and therefore the baby is unable to breathe. Although some respiratory diseases cannot be prevented, several chronic respiratory organ and respiratory diseases are often prevented by avoiding smoking, staying far from pollutants and irritants, washing hands typically to avoid infection, and obtaining regular medical check-ups.
Session 12: and Delivery
"Labor" and "delivery" describe the process of childbirth. Contractions of the uterus and changes in the cervix (the opening of the uterus) prepares a woman's body to give birth. Then the baby is born, and the placenta follows. NICHD studies many aspects of labour and delivery: their basic biology, childbirth practices, and management of related problems.
Session 13: and
is the natural capability to produce offspring. As a measure, fertility rate is the number of offspring born per mating pair, individual or population.
The Stanford Medicine Fertility and Reproductive Health Services team includes some of the country’s leading , reproductive endocrinologists, clinical nurses and technicians who will work with you to develop a treatment plan that meets your emotional and lifestyle needs. Our team of physicians includes American Board of Obstetrics and Gynecology certified specialists, research leaders in the field, and faculty members at Stanford School of Medicine – all of whom have extensive clinical experience treating .
Clinical Ultrasound has been thoroughly revised and updated by a brand new editorial team in order to incorporate the latest scanning technologies and their clinical applications in both adult and paediatric patients. With over 4,000 high-quality illustrations, the book covers the entire gamut of organ systems and body parts where this modality is useful. It provides the ultrasound practitioner with a comprehensive, authoritative guide to image diagnosis and interpretation. Colour is now incorporated extensively throughout this edition in order to reflect the advances in clinical Doppler, power Doppler, contrast agents. Each chapter now follows a consistent organizational structure and now contains numerous summary boxes and charts in order to make the diagnostic process practical and easy to follow. Covering all of the core knowledge, skills and experience as recommended by the Royal College of Radiologists, it provides the Fellow with a knowledge base sufficient to pass professional certification examinations and provides the practitioner with a quick reference on all currently available diagnostic and imaging procedures.
Session 15: and
Female Pelvic Medicine and Reconstructive Surgery focuses on the surgical and non-surgical treatment of pelvic floor disorders, which include pelvic organ prolapse, incontinence, and pelvic pain. Female Pelvic Medicine and Reconstructive Surgery fellowships are three years in length for graduating OB/GYN residents and two years in length for graduating Urology residents.
The uterus, or womb, is the place where a baby grows when a woman is pregnant. The first sign of a problem with the may be bleeding between periods or after sex. Causes can include hormones, thyroid problems, fibroids, polyps, cancer, infection, or pregnancy. Treatment depends on the cause. Sometimes birth control pills treat . If a thyroid problem is the cause, treating it may also stop the bleeding. If you have cancer or , an overgrowth of normal cells in the uterus, you may need surgery.
Maternal–Fetal Medicine specialists are physicians who subspecialize within the field of obstetrics. Their training typically includes a four-year residency in and gynecology followed by a three-year fellowship. They may perform prenatal tests, provide treatments, and perform surgeries. They act both as a consultant during lower-risk and as the primary obstetrician in especially high-risk pregnancies. After birth, they may work closely with or neonatologists. For the mother, assist with pre-existing health concerns, as well as complications caused by pregnancy.
Session 18: Gynecological Surgeries
Gynecological surgeries refer to a medical procedure on the . It includes methodologies for agreeable conditions, threat, infertility, and incontinence. The gynecological medical procedure may sometimes be performed for elective or therapeutic purposes. Also, this field is rapidly changing as a result of new innovations and improvements in endoscopy, imaging and other interventional frameworks. Gynecological surgeries develop every medical procedure related to women health, including Urogynecology and Oncology.
Session 20: Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a condition that affects a woman's hormone levels. Women with PCOS produce higher-than-normal amounts of male hormones. This hormone imbalance causes them to skip menstrual periods and makes it harder for them to get pregnant.
Common symptoms of PCOS include:
· Irregular periods or no periods at all.
· Difficulty getting pregnant (because of irregular ovulation or failure to ovulate)
· Excessive hair growth (hirsutism) – usually on the face, chest, back or buttocks.
· Weight gain.
· Thinning hair and hair loss from the head.
· Oily skin or acne.
Session 21: Cosmetic & Reconstructive Gynecology
Cosmetic Gynecology has become one of the fastest-growing subspecialties of elective surgery for women and includes specialists in gynecology, urogynecology, urology, and plastic surgery. This area of special interest includes both cosmetic procedures to enhance the aesthetic appearance of the vulvo/vaginal region, as well as functional vaginal repairs to enhance or help restore sexual function following the changes that may occur following childbirth and/or aging.
Reconstructive surgery specialists utilize the idea of a reconstructive ladder to manage complex injuries. This extent from exceptionally basic strategies, for example, essential conclusion and dressings to increasingly complex skin grafts, tissue extension, and free folds.
Session 22: Gynecologic Cancers: Case Report
Ovarian cancer is found to be the 2nd most common gynecologic cancer with around 24,000 new cases every year, leading to 17,000 deaths per year. Vaginal cancer account for about 2,500 diagnoses each year causing about 800 deaths. Every woman is at risk of gynecologic cancer.
- · Gynecologic Cancers Case Reports on Prevention
- · Gynecologic Cancers Case Reports on Screening
- · Gynecologic Cancers Case Reports on Diagnosis
- · Gynecologic Cancers Case Reports on Treatment